Problématiser la consommation de drogues par la communauté LGBTQI, gouverner la sexualité et le genre : analyse critique de la politique de santé menée envers la communauté
Après avoir mis en lumière les présupposés normatifs qui sous-tendent les politiques actuelles de prévention de la santé en matière de consommation de drogues par les minorités LGBTQI, particulièrement en contexte sexuel, l’enquête suggère que la problématisation de ces questions devienne un processus situé afin que les consommateurs LGBTQI puissent se l’approprier.
It is well-established that a high prevalence of substance use is found in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) populations ; a finding that researchers attribute to the stigmatised status of non-normative sexual and gender expression, and the role of illicit drug use in the collective production of socio-sexual pleasures, expressivity and disclosure in LGBTIQ communities. Despite the connections between sexual experimentation and substance use, LGBTIQ consumption practices have rarely received the attention they deserve within the alcohol and other drug (AOD) field. In this paper, we draw on concepts from post-structuralist policy analysis to analyse how AOD consumption among sexual and gender minorities is constituted in the policies of three Australian LGBTIQ health organisations. Following Carol Bacchi's (2009, p. xi) observation that we are "governed through problematisations rather than policies", we consider how substance use in LGBTIQ populations has been formulated as a policy problem requiring intervention. Doing so allows us to identify the normative assumptions about minority sexual and gender identities that underpin dominant problematisations of LGBTIQ substance use. These include : a) high rates of AOD use in LGBTIQ populations constitute problems in and of themselves, regardless of individual patterns of use ; b) LGBTIQ people are a vulnerable population with specialised needs ; and c) sexualised drug use is associated with "disinhibition" and a range of risks (including HIV transmission, drug dependence and mental health issues). Addressing the implications of these assumptions for how LGBTIQ communities are governed, we suggest that problematisation is an embodied, situated process, and that there is much to be gained by reframing dominant problematisations of AOD consumption so that this process is better informed by the inventive practices of LGBTIQ consumers themselves.